What are CodeIgniter controllers?
CodeIgniter controllers are a crucial component of the framework’s MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture, responsible for handling user requests, processing them, and controlling the flow of your web application. Controllers act as intermediaries between the Model (which deals with data and business logic) and the View (which handles the presentation and user interface). Here’s a more detailed explanation of CodeIgniter controllers:
- Request Handling: Controllers in CodeIgniter are designed to respond to HTTP requests made by users or clients. When a user accesses a specific URL in your application, the corresponding controller method is invoked. For example, if a user visits your website’s homepage, a controller method is responsible for rendering that page.
- Business Logic: Controllers encapsulate the application’s business logic. They are where you implement the functionality of your web application. This can include tasks like retrieving data from the database, processing form submissions, performing calculations, and making decisions on how to respond to user actions.
- Loading Models and Views: Within a controller, you can load models to interact with the database and retrieve or manipulate data. Controllers also determine which view should be displayed to the user. By loading the appropriate view, you separate the presentation layer (View) from the application’s logic (Controller).
- URL Routing: CodeIgniter’s routing system maps URLs to specific controller methods. You can define custom routes in the `application/config/routes.php` file to control how URLs are handled by your controllers. This flexibility allows you to create clean and user-friendly URLs.
- Controller Naming Convention: CodeIgniter follows a naming convention where the controller class names should start with an uppercase letter, and the file name matches the class name with a lowercase first letter. For example, if you have a controller named `HomeController`, the filename should be `Home.php`.
- Constructor and Methods: Controllers typically have a constructor where you can load necessary libraries, models, and helpers. Controller methods correspond to specific actions or URLs. For example, a controller might have a method named `index()` that handles the default action for a particular URL.
CodeIgniter controllers are the backbone of your web application, responsible for routing requests, implementing business logic, and orchestrating the interaction between models and views. They play a crucial role in achieving a well-structured, organized, and maintainable codebase, following the principles of the MVC pattern.